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What the Professional Literature Says About Technology and Learning: An Annotated Bibliography

Professional Literature
Research Studies

Research Studies:

Adrac, D., & Sezen, A. (2002). Effectiveness of computer-based chemistry instruction in enhancing the learning of content and variable control under guided versus unguided conditions. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 11(1), 39-48.

Examined effectiveness of guided versus unguided computer-based instruction with regard to regular instruction in improving content knowledge and process skills among students with high and low achieving levels. The effectiveness of computer-based instruction increases when learning is supported by teacher-directed guidance.

Apple Computers, Inc. (1995). Changing the conversation about teaching, learning, & technology: Apple Classrooms Of Tomorrow (ACOT)’s ten year report. Cupertino, CA: Apple Computers, Inc. Available at:

Decade-long study to answer, “What happens to teachers and students when they have access to technology whenever they need it?” In ACOT classrooms teachers and students had immediate access to a wide range of technologies. ACOT research demonstrated that the introduction of technology to classrooms can significantly increase the potential for learning. The study’s key findings:

  • Learning needs to be meaningful;
  • Technology is a catalyst for change;
  • Teachers progress through stages as they learn how to incorporate technology in classroom environments;
  • A framework for collaboration can support teachers in the change process; and
  • Situated professional development is a powerful agent for change.

Bickford, A., Hammer, B., McKinty, P., McKinley, P., Mitchell, S. (2000). eMINTs project evaluation report. Columbia, MI: Office of Social and Economic Data Analysis.
Available at:

The Enhancing Missouri Instructional Networked Teaching Strategies (eMINTs) project began in 1997 to show the impact that technology-rich classrooms could have on educational practice and student achievement in elementary schools. In every subject area, students enrolled in third and fourth grade eMINTS classes scored higher than students not enrolled in eMINTS classes in the same schools. In addition, the average eMINTS student scored higher than the statewide student average in every subject area. eMINTS evaluation has been recognized as meeting the requirements for the U.S. Department of Education's “Scientifically-Based Research” outlined in No Child Left Behind.

Brush, T., Armstrong, J., Barbrow, D., & Ulintz, L. (1999). Design and delivery of integrated learning systems: Their impact on student achievement and attitudes. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 21(4), 475-486.

The purpose of this research was to determine if providing teachers with a wider variety of computer-based resources to integrate with the instructional activities for their students would have a positive effect on student achievement and attitudes. Results of the study indicate that the students of teachers who used either the explorations software or a combination of the foundations and explorations software in their instructional activities performed significantly better on standardized achievement measures than students of teachers who used the foundations software. In addition, students who used the explorations software had more positive attitudes toward reading than students who used the foundations software.

Chang, C. (2000). Enhancing tenth graders’ earth-science learning through computer-assisted instruction. Journal of Geoscience Education, 48(5), 636-640.

A study investigated the comparative efficiency of traditional instructional methods and computer-assisted instruction on the Earth science learning of tenth-grade students in Taiwan. Participants were 151 tenth-grade senior high school students of Earth science and their Earth science teacher. Results revealed that computer-assisted instruction was superior to traditional instructional methods for promoting students' learning of Earth science concepts, particularly at the knowledge and comprehension levels of Bloom's cognitive taxonomy.

Christmann, E., & Badgett, J. (1999). A comparative analysis of the effects of computer-assisted instruction on student achievement in differing science and demographic areas. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 18(2), 135-143.

This study compared science students who were exposed to traditional instructional methodology with those receiving tradition methodology supplemented with computer-assisted instruction. The results indicate that students receiving the traditional instruction accompanied by computer-assisted instruction attained higher academic achievement than those receiving only traditional instruction.

Cramer, S., & Smith, A. (2002). Technology’s impact on student writing at the middle school level. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 29(1), 3-14.

The authors of this study examined changes in writing achievement between two groups of middle school students using a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest design. One group experienced a traditional language arts curriculum. The other participated in a more technology rich curriculum. One-hundred and thirty-nine student writing samples were used in the data analysis. Teacher interview data was also collected and analyzed by the researchers. Student writing scores were examined as an aggregate for each grade level. Beginning of the year, end of the year, and change between the two scores were calculated for each writing area -- ideas, organization, voice. Statistically significant differences were found in some areas. The research did not show that the infusion of technology in the writing portion of a middle school language arts curriculum increase student writing scores.

Judson, E. Sawada, D. (2000). Examining the effects of a reformed junior high school science class on students' math achievement. School Science and Mathematics, 100(8), 19-25.

This paper examines an eighth-grade science class that integrated mathematics into science through the use of technology. In a setting of action research, the effects of such integration were examined. This paper reports that integrating mathematics into the science class positively affected students' achievement in math.

Kelly, P. (1997). Transfer of learning from a computer simulation as compared to laboratory activity. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 26(4), 345-351.

Address computer simulations in science education -specifically Issues of fidelity and transfer when a computer simulation is used instead of a laboratory activity. Compared test scores for 39 ninth-grade earth-science students from two groups – experimental group used computer simulation activities for learning about minerals, control group used real minerals. No difference was found in student performance between the two groups.

Papanastasiou, E., Zemblyas, M., & Vrasidas, C. (2003). Can computer use hurt science achievement? Journal of Science Education and Technology, 12 (3), 325-332.

This study examined relationship between computer use and students’ science achievement based on data from a standardized assessment. Results from the analysis show it is not the computer use itself that has a positive or negative effect on achievement of students, but the way in which computers are used.

Tiene, D., & Luft, P. (2001). Teaching in a technology-rich classroom. Educational Technology, 41(4), 21-31.

A study examined teaching and learning in a technology-rich classroom. Participants were 11 teachers and their students from two school districts who utilized the technology-rich Ameritech Classroom of the Future at Kent State University's College of Education. Results suggested that both teachers and students took advantage of and significantly improved their skills in working with the classroom technology. Results showed that student learning activities were better individualized; students worked more independently on projects of interest to them; student interaction was facilitated; and cooperative learning was enhanced.

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This page last updated 2/19/07